Well, your cable is essentially the same dongle. Just that instead of having a 3.5mm port, it has a plug on the other end. And it almost certainly implements the same basic USB audio as almost any USB DAC. That means it will work on anything that supports USB 2.0 or newer. Even if you connect it to a normal USB port (pretty sure there is an adapter for that somewhere in China).
But just to be sure, can you show us where you brought your cable? It would be perfect to know a model number or something (I know they usually don’t put those on cables, so… catalog number maybe?) I’m asking this because the cable might turn out to be something proprietary that only works with certain phones.
Also, @gkmess: not all alt-modes are supported. For example, HDMI alt mode isn’t. At the time when Eve V design was finalized, there were no actual implementations of that one, just the specification. I think the same applies to that analog audio mode.